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ToggleHello everyone: ), this article is about Python language which is an object-oriented and high-level programming language.

This article will be very beneficial for you to improve your knowledge of the basics of Python language. So, let’s start ;

## Python

Python is a popular, high-level programming language known for its simplicity, readability, and flexibility. It is widely used in a variety of fields, including web development, data science, scientific computing, and artificial intelligence. Python also supports object-oriented, procedural, and functional programming paradigms. This makes it a versatile language that can be used for a wide range of purposes.

## Types of variables

- Numeric variables
- String variables
- Boolean variables
- List variables
- Dictionary variables
- Function variables

### Numeric Variable

These are variables that store numeric values, such as integers (whole numbers) and floating-point numbers (numbers with decimal places).

Example:

```
x = 10; # integer variable
y = 3.14; # floating-point variable
```

### String variable

These are variables that store sequences of characters, enclosed in quotation marks. They are commonly used to store text-based data.

Example:

```
name = "John Doe"; # string variable
greeting = 'Hello'; # string variable
```

### Boolean variable

These are variables that can have one of two values: `True`

or `False`

. They are often used to store the result of a logical expression or to control the flow of a program.

Example:

```
is_raining = True; # boolean variable
is_cold = False; # boolean variable
```

### List variable

These are variables that store an ordered collection of values. These are similar to arrays in other programming languages.

Example:

```
names = ["John", "Jane", "Joe"]; # list variable
numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]; # list variable
```

### Dictionary variable

These are variables that store unordered collections of key-value pairs. They are often used to store data that needs to be accessed by a unique identifier (the key).

Example:

```
person = {
"name": "John Doe",
"age": 35,
"gender": "Male"
} # dictionary variable
```

### Function variable

These are variables that refer to a function or a method. They are often used to store a reference to a function that can be called later.

Example:

```
def greet(name):
print("Hello, " + name)
greet_func = greet; # function variable
```

## Datatypes in Python

- Numeric type
- Sequence type
- Mapping type
- Set type
- Boolean type
- Binary type
- None type

### Numeric Type

These are data types that represent numeric values, such as integers, floating-point numbers, and complex numbers.

Example:

```
x = 10; # integer
y = 3.14; # floating-point
z = 2+3j; # complex
```

### Sequence Type

These are data types that represent ordered collections of values, such as strings, lists, and tuples.

Example:

```
name = "John Doe"; # string
numbers = [1, 2, 3]; # list
person = ("John", 35, "Male"); # tuple
```

### Mapping Type

These are data types that represent unordered collections of key-value pairs, such as dictionaries.

Example:

```
person = {
"name": "John Doe",
"age": 35,
"gender": "Male"
}; # dictionary
```

### Set Type

It represents unordered collections of unique values, such as sets.

Example:

`numbers = {1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5}; # set`

### Boolean Type

This is a data type that represents a logical value, either `True`

or `False`

.

Example:

```
is_raining = True; # boolean
is_cold = False; # boolean
```

### Binary Type

It represents binary data, such as bytes and byte arrays.

Example:

```
binary_data = b"\x01\x02\x03"; # bytes
binary_array = bytearray(b"\x01\x02\x03"); # bytearray
```

### None Type

This is a special data type that represents the absence of a value.

Example:

`x = None; # None type`

## Operators in Python

- Arithmetic operators
- Assignment operators
- Comparison operators
- Logical operators
- Bitwise operators
- Membership operators
- Identity operators

### Arithmetic Operator

These are operators that perform basic mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Example:

```
x = 5 + 2; # addition
y = 5 - 2; # subtraction
z = 5 * 2; # multiplication
a = 5 / 2; # division
```

### Assignment Operator

These are operators that are used to assign a value to a variable.

Example:

```
x = 5; # assignment operator
```

### Comparison Operator

Comparison operators compare two values and return a boolean value (`True`

or `False`

) based on the result of the comparison.

Example:

```
x = 5;
y = 2;
result = x > y; # greater than operator
result = x >= y; # greater than or equal to operator
result = x < y; # less than operator
result = x <= y; # less than or equal to operator
result = x == y; # equal to operator
result = x != y; # not equal to operator
```

### Logical Operator

It performs logical operations, such as `and`

, `or`

, `not`

, on boolean values.

Example:

```
x = True;
y = False;
result = x and y; # logical and operator
result = x or y; # logical or operator
result = not x; # logical not operator
```

### Bitwise Operator

It performs bitwise operations on the binary representation of numeric values.

Example:

```
x = 5; # binary representation: 0101
y = 2; # binary representation: 0010
result = x & y # bitwise and operator
result = x | y # bitwise or operator
result = x ^ y # bitwise xor operator
result = ~x # bitwise not operator
result = x << 1 # bitwise left shift operator
result = x >> 1 # bitwise right shift operator
```

### Membership Operator

Membership operators check if a value exists in a sequence, such as a string, a list, or a tuple.

Example:

```
x = "hello";
result = "h" in x; #in operator
result = "z" not in x; # not in operator
```

### Identity Operator

Identity operators check if two values refer to the same object in memory.

Example:

```
x = "hello";
y = x;
result = x is y; # is operator
result = x is not y; # is not operator
```

## Functions of Python

This function is used to display output on the screen.`print()`

: –This function is used to get input from the user.`input()`

: –This function is used to get the length of a string.`len()`

: –This function is used to generate a sequence of numbers.`range()`

: –This function is used to add up the numbers in a list.`sum()`

: –This function is used to get the minimum value in a list.`min()`

: –This function is used to get the maximum value in a list.`max()`

: –

These are just a few examples of the many functions available in Python. There are many more, and you can find them in the Python documentation or by using the `dir()`

function to list the available functions in a module or library.

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